Benjamin Kest, Ph.D. (University of California, Los Angeles)



A postdoctoral fellow in John Liebeskind's lab, and still a close friend, Ben ("Fritz") and Jeff ("Hitzig") have a collaboration that resulted in over 20 publications.  Claim to fame: once knew "Sharona" immortalized by The Knack.


  • Mogil, J.S., Sternberg, W.F., Kest, B., Marek, P., and Liebeskind, J.C. Sex differences in the antagonism of swim stress-induced analgesia: effects of gonadectomy and estrogen replacement. Pain, 253:17-25, 1993.
  • Mogil, J.S., Marek, P., Flodman, P., Spence, M.A., Sternberg, W.F., Kest, B., Sadowski, B., and Liebeskind, J.C. One or two genetic loci mediate high opiate analgesia in selectively bred mice. Pain, 60:125-135, 1995.
  • Kest, B., Mogil, J.S., Sternberg, W.F., Pechnick, R.N., and Liebeskind, J.C. Antinociception following 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), a selective sigma receptor ligand. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 50:587-592, 1995.
  • Kest, B., Mogil, J.S., Sternberg, W.F., Pechnick, R.N., and Liebeskind, J.C. 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) differentially affects acute and tonic formalin pain: antagonism by rimcazole. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 52:175-178, 1995.
  • Mogil, J.S., Flodman, P., Spence, M.A., Sternberg, W.F., Kest, B., Sadowski, B., Liebeskind, J.C., and Belknap, J.K. Oligogenic determination of morphine analgesic magnitude: a genetic analysis of selectively bred mouse lines. Behav. Genet., 25:397-406, 1995.
  • Sternberg, W.F., Mogil, J.S., Kest, B., Page, G.G., Leong, Y., Yam, V., and Liebeskind, J.C. Neonatal testosterone exposure influences neurochemistry of swim stress-induced analgesia in adult mice. Pain, 63:321-326, 1995.
  • Kest, B., Brodsky, M., Sadowski, B., Mogil, J.S., and Inturrisi, C.E. Mu-opiate receptor (Mor-1) mRNA levels are altered in mice with differential analgesic sensitivity to the mu agonist, DAMGO. Analgesia, 1:498-501, 1995.
  • Mogil, J.S., Kest, B., Sadowski, B., and Belknap, J.K. Differential genetic mediation of sensitivity to morphine in genetic models of opiate sensitivity: influence of nociceptive assay. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 276:532-544, 1996.
  • Kest, B., Lee, C.E., Mogil, J.S., and Inturrisi, C.E. Blockade of morphine supersensitivity by an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting the DOR-1 delta opioid receptor. Life Sci., 60:PL155- 159, 1997.
  • Mogil, J.S., Richards, S.P., O'Toole, L.A., Mitchell, S.R., Helms, M.L., Kest, B., and Belknap, J.K. Identification of sex-specific quantitative trait loci mediating non-opioid swim stress-induced analgesia in female mice. J. Neurosci., 17:7995-8002, 1997.
  • Kest, B., Sarton, E., Mogil, J.S., and Dahan, A. Opioid-induced analgesia and respiratory depression: sex differences. In: Dahan, A., Teppema, L.J. and van Beek, E.J. (Eds.) Physiology and Pharmacology of Cardio-respiratory Control. Kluwer Academic Press: Dordrecht, pp. 75-82, 1998.
  • Kest, B., Beckzowska, I., Franklin, S.O., Lee, C.E., Mogil, J.S., and Inturrisi, C.E. Differences in delta opioid receptor antinociception, binding, and mRNA levels between BALB/c and CXBK mice. Brain Res., 805:131-137, 1998.
  • Kest, B., McLemore, G.L., Sadowski, B., Mogil, J.S., Belknap, J.K., and Inturrisi, C.E. Acute morphine dependence in mice selectively-bred for high and low analgesia. Neurosci. Lett., 256:120-122, 1998.
  • Kest, B., Jenab, S., Brodsky, M., Sadowski, B., Belknap, J.K., Mogil, J.S., and Inturrisi, C.E. Mu and delta opioid receptor analgesia, binding density, and mRNA levels in mice selectively bred for high and low analgesia. Brain Res., 816:381-389, 1999.
  • Mogil, J.S. and Kest, B. Sex differences in opioid analgesia: of mice and women. Pain Forum, 8:48-50, 1999.
  • Kest, B., Wilson, S.G., and Mogil, J.S. Sex differences in supraspinal morphine analgesia are dependent on genotype. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 289:1370-1375, 1999.
  • Kest, B., Hopkins, E., Palmese, C.A., Chen, Z.-P., Mogil, J.S., and Pintar, J.E. Morphine tolerance and dependence in nociceptin/orphanin FQ transgenic knock?out mice. Neuroscience, 104:217-222, 2001.
  • Kest, B., Hopkins, E., Palmese, C.A., Adler, M., and Mogil, J.S. Genetic variation in morphine analgesic tolerance: a survey of 11 inbred mouse strains.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 73:821- 828, 2002.
  • Kest, B., Palmese, C.A., Hopkins, E., Adler, M., Juni, A., and Mogil, J.S. Acute and chronic morphine dependence display genetic commonality: a survey of 11 inbred mouse strains. Neuroscience, 115:463-469, 2002.
  • Kest, B., Palmese, C.A., Juni, A., Chesler, E.J., and Mogil, J.S. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for morphine withdrawal severity. Mamm. Genome, 15:610-617, 2004.
  • Kest, B., Smith, S.B., Schorscher-Petcu, A., Austin, J.-S., Ritchie, J., Klein, G., Rossi, G.C., Fortin, A., and Mogil, J.S.  Gnao1 (Galphao protein) is a likely genetic contributor to variation in physical dependence on opioids in mice. Neuroscience, 162:1255-1264, 2009.
  • Juni, A., Cai, M., Stankova, M., Waxman, A.R., Arout, C., Klein, G., Dahan, A., Hruby, V.J., Mogil, J.S., and Kest, B.  Sex-specific mediation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia by the melanocortin-1 receptor.  Anesthesiology, 112:181-188, 2010.

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