||As usual, CC
training begins in an output phase with no hidden units. But with the encoder
option, the only available weights are from the bias unit. Trainable
connection weights are drawn in this slideshow as dashed arrows. Initially,
the weights have random values, generating random performance. Weights are
adjusted to reduce discrepancy (error) between the input and output vectors.
Error reduction typically stagnates quickly in this first output phase with
the encoder option because the network is taking no account of variation in